It is important to have a basic understanding of the skin to follow along on the paragraphs on cosmetic dermatology procedures.

The skin is composed of the epidermis, the dermis and the subcutaneous layer.

The epidermis has several layers, the names of those aren’t as important to know, but it is important to know that the epidermis turns over, meaning it regenerates itself, approximately every 2-6 weeks (varies by place on body).

The dermis is in the middle. It is composed of collagen, elastin (elastic fibers), and hyaluronic acid, to name just a few. Ultraviolet light can penetrate the epidermis and causes the normally young firm dermis to disintegrate. Any injury penetrating into the dermis will leave a scar. Tattoos are placed deep into the dermis, which is why they don’t slough off in 4 weeks.

The subcutaneous layer is composed of fat, also known as adipose tissue.

Small neurovascular structures extend out into the dermis, right below the epidermis. These neurovascular structures are composed of nerve, arteriole, and venule.

Eccrine glands are sweat glands.

Sebaceous glands are oil glands and are located on the hair follicle and the oil is secreted out the pore of the hair follicle. These enlarge in midlife and look like yellow small bumps, called sebaceous hyperplasia.

Special areas of the skin like the underarms, and genitalia, have apocrine glands. Apocrine glands are a special type of sweat gland, and become active at puberty.

Hair follicles extend down deep into the dermis, almost to the fat.

Muscles are below the fat layer. Muscles of expression attach to and move the skin, such as when you concentrate or are surprised.